The Grocery Conspiracy

by Jon Black

1908. A look at an organized Mafia conspiracy to commit bankruptcy fraud by concealment of assets, amounting to $500,000.

The Crime

Ignazio Lupo had worked in the gro­cery busi­ness in Palermo with his father since 1887. Legal pro­ceed­ings were held again­st him in March 1899, after he shot a busi­ness rival in his store. Based on the tes­ti­mony of his own employ­ees, Lupo was con­vict­ed of ‘delib­er­ate and wil­ful mur­der’. But he had already fled the coun­try, arriv­ing ille­gal­ly in New York dur­ing 1898.

Lupo con­tin­ued to work in the gro­cery busi­ness, and opened sev­er­al out­lets in New York City. His first store was on East 72nd Street with a cous­in named Saitta, lat­er he moved the busi­ness to Brooklyn. In 1901, he moved back to Manhattan open­ing a store at 9 Prince Street. When his father arrived in 1902, they opened a retail gro­cery store “Rocco Lupo & Sons’ at 310 West 39th Street, where he worked along with his broth­er, Giovanni Lupo.1

He opened his flag­ship store at 210214 Mott Street. The New York Times described it as ‘‘eas­i­ly the most pre­ten­tious mer­can­tile estab­lish­ment in that sec­tion of the city, with a stock of goods over which the neigh­bour­hood mar­velled … Lupo’s hors­es and deliv­ery wag­ons were the best that had ever been used in the neigh­bour­hood”. The turnover of the busi­ness reached between $500,000 and $600,000 a year.2

William Flynn, chief of the Secret Service, who had an informed knowl­edge of Lupo’s meth­ods, described how Lupo threat­ened oth­er busi­ness­es:3

The small Italian gro­cers of the dis­trict were forced to buy their sup­plies from this store. If they did not their estab­lish­ments were in dan­ger of being wrecked by bombs or burned … By intim­i­dat­ing the local gro­cers into trad­ing at their whole­sale store, Lupo and Morello accom­plished a dou­ble pur­pose. They swelled their so-called legit­i­mate prof­its and were able to get rid of some of [their] coun­ter­feit mon­ey.

Lupo import­ed Italian goods from his broth­er-in-law, Francesco Gambino, via an import com­pa­ny run by Frank Zito. In February 1903, a con­sign­ment of emp­ty olive oil cans labelled ‘Rocco Lupo & Sons’ was sent by Gambino to the ‘Lupo Brothers’. The cans were impound­ed for inspec­tion by the Secret Service, after they learnt of a telegram sent by Vito Cascioferro, that led them to believe the gang were smug­gling coun­ter­feit cur­ren­cy into the city.4

Other Mafioso also ran gro­cery stores across New York. Several of them were con­sid­ered to be ‘branch stores’ of Lupo’s net­work:5

  • 9 Spring Street — run by Antonio Cecala.6
  • 593 Flushing Avenue — run by Antonito Passananti.7
  • 235 East 97th Street — run by Domenico Milone.8
  • 307 East 71st Street — run by Carlo Costantino.9
  • 150 Elizabeth Street — “owned by Lupo”.10
  • Giovanni Pecoraro, who also ran a gro­cery store, showed debts to the same cred­i­tors as Lupo in 1909.11

In late November 1908, Lupo dis­ap­peared from New York owing up to $100,000 to his cred­i­tors, among whom were list­ed a trust com­pa­ny; a New York bank; and food and wine mer­chants;12 Many oth­er Italian stores in the city began to fail at the same time, esti­mat­ed at six in Brooklyn and eleven in Manhattan.13 The New York author­i­ties soon realised they were fac­ing an organ­ised con­spir­a­cy,14 with com­bined lia­bil­i­ties across Brooklyn and Manhattan esti­mat­ed at $500,000.15

Twelve war­rants were issued by Court Receiver, Charles Cohn, for ‘fraud­u­lent dis­po­si­tion of prop­er­ty, and with con­spir­a­cy to defraud mer­chants’. Benjamin Lesser, attor­ney for Lupo’s cred­i­tors sus­pect­ed that a fur­ther ten busi­ness­es were involved. 

Receiver Cohn became sus­pi­cious after find­ing one of the stores emp­tied of stock, even though they had been sup­plied with ‘thou­sands of dol­lars of wine dur­ing the past few days’. He was tipped off about the con­spir­a­cy by a book­keep­er from one of the stores, who had been offered $100 to ‘keep his mouth shut’. Cohn, and the book­keep­er both received death threats.16

Goods totalling around $50,000 were tracked down to a Jersey City pier ready to be trans­port­ed to Italy,17 with fur­ther stock dis­cov­ered on a Manhattan pier. Some items, includ­ing meat and lard had already been shipped to Italy.18 In an attempt to dis­guise the source of the goods, com­pa­ny names and details had been removed from the bar­rels and crates, but agents con­nect­ed to the sup­pli­ers man­aged to iden­ti­fy the stock. A store­room at Twenty Fourth street and First avenue was raid­ed, reveal­ing a fur­ther $6,000 worth of prop­er­ty,19 and anoth­er ware­house on Washington Street dis­closed even more.20

The bank­rupt­cy courts auc­tioned off the reclaimed stock, along with oth­er assets from Lupo’s store. The items were list­ed as: 21

large stock of Italian wines, liquors. gro­ceries, bar­rels of claret, port and oth­er wines, vine­gar, bar­rels of soda, bags of beans, peas, nuts, salt, bales of stock fish, cas­es of soap, starch, wash­ing pow­der, mac­a­roni, bolog­na; also fix­tures, con­sist­ing of safe, revolv­ing chairs, desks, seal­er, let­ter press …

The Brains

Egyptian born, Philip S. Saitta, was the son of an Italian Minister to Egypt. He began his career in the gro­cery busi­ness, but was best known for his work as a New York attor­ney, spe­cial­is­ing in rep­re­sent­ing fruit importers.22

Saitta was a well edu­cat­ed man with a great knowl­edge of the gro­cery busi­ness; in 1908 he spoke in front of con­gress in ‘Tariff hear­ings before the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives’ where he ‘rep­re­sent­ed the fruit deal­ers and importers of New York’ and the Italian Chamber of Commerce, and spoke about remov­ing the tar­iff on Italian lemons import­ed into America.23 He also act­ed as rep­re­sen­ta­tive for the Italian Merchants Protective Association, and had a con­struc­tion com­pa­ny involved with erect­ing apart­ment hous­es.24

Saitta act­ed as attor­ney for the Musica fam­i­ly in 1913, who were accused of ‘hav­ing swin­dled a chain of twen­ty two banks in [America] and Europe out of more than $1,000,000 through alleged manip­u­la­tion of invoic­es’.25 He had known the fam­i­ly for many years, hav­ing pre­vi­ous­ly rep­re­sent­ed them in sev­er­al civil cas­es,26 but was accused of only offer­ing them his legal ser­vices after they had hand­ed over their pri­vate papers and valu­ables. Reports show that Saitta was served with a writ in 1913 for hold­ing prop­er­ty belong­ing to the fam­i­ly.27

In 1914, Saitta was tried and con­vict­ed for grand lar­ce­ny in the Court of General Sessions28. He was charged with retain­ing pro­ceeds from import­ed Italian lemons, and as a result was dis­barred on July 6, 1914.29

Towards the end of the tri­al, Saitta was con­front­ed with a ten page report pre­pared by Assistant District Attorney William Hayward. He was accused of being con­nect­ed with bank­rupt­cies, bogus finan­cial trans­ac­tions, and of hav­ing con­nec­tions with the Mafia.30

The report closed by say­ing:31

The Police Department of this city, as well as many well informed busi­ness men, believe that the defen­dant has been the mas­ter mind and legal advis­er to the Mafia, and has been in close asso­ci­a­tion as advis­er and friend of some of the most dan­ger­ous and noto­ri­ous crim­i­nals for years

The accu­sa­tion cer­tain­ly holds some weight:

  • In 1909, Mafioso Giuseppe Morello was seen vis­it­ing Saitta’s office at 258 Broadway.32
  • In the weeks lead­ing up to Saitta’s 1914 tri­al, lawyer Charles H. Deull from DA Whitman’s office con­tact­ed the New York Secret Service to ascer­tain if they had any infor­ma­tion on ‘Filippo Saitta, who was a close asso­ciate of Lupo’s’.33
  • Saitta act­ed as attor­ney for Salvatore Manzella, an Italian gro­cer who had con­nec­tions with Ignazio Lupo.34
  • His son, Philip W. Saitta, did busi­ness with Lupo’s whole­sale store on Mott Street, involv­ing gro­cery goods and loans.35
  • An arti­cle about Saitta’s con­vic­tion, sub-head­ed “Defender of Notorious Crooks”, claimed he had rep­re­sent­ed ‘Lupo the Wolf’, and ‘Petto the Ox’ from the famous Barrel Trial in 1903.36
  • Saitta act­ed as attor­ney for Ignazio Lupo in a busi­ness mat­ter.37
  • He incor­po­rat­ed a com­pa­ny in 1913 with Frank Zito, a busi­ness­man with con­nec­tions to Giuseppe Morello and Ignazio Lupo.38
  • He had deal­ings with Biagio Calandra, an Italian gro­cer who was arrest­ed for mur­der and insur­ance fraud, who also had con­nec­tions with Ignazio Lupo.39

During the tri­al, ADA Hayward accused Saitta of being involved with a bank­rupt­cy con­spir­a­cy using a net­work of New York gro­cery stores. 

The Conspiracy

Hayward asked Saitta if he had induced Charles A. Edwards of the Anglo-South American Bank to loan $300,000 to Italian gro­cers and busi­ness­es, that were non­col­lec­table due to the gro­cers being miss­ing or repu­di­at­ing their sig­na­tures mak­ing the doc­u­ments worth­less.40

The busi­ness­es list­ed in the courts accu­sa­tion and press reports were:41

❖ Ignazio Lupo. 210 Mott St. and 9 Spring St. NY

Lupo was the first to dis­ap­pear in the scheme, leav­ing debts of around $100,000,42 and was con­sid­ered to be ‘at the bot­tom of the alleged swindle’.43 Before he dis­ap­peared, Lupo had large busi­ness trans­ac­tions with Philip Saitta’s son44 , and received ‘cash advances’ from Saitta, that were paid on his bills of lad­ing.45

❖ Antonio Passananti. 593 Flushing Av. Brooklyn

Passananti was report­ed to have made large pay­ments to Lupo short­ly before his own whole­sale wine store simul­ta­ne­ous­ly failed with $15,000 of debt. His busi­ness, which had been report­ed as sus­pi­cious by the NYPD Italian Branch, was also sus­pect­ed to be a branch store of Lupo’s own gro­cery net­work. He had pre­vi­ous­ly been arrest­ed for extor­tion, and was lat­er arrest­ed in Sicily in con­nec­tion with the mur­der of Lt. Petrosino.46

❖ Lupo & Lo Presti. 419421 Jefferson St. NY

A whole­sale and retail gro­cery busi­ness run by Giovanni Lupo, broth­er of Ignazio Lupo. Giovanni had pre­vi­ous­ly worked with his broth­er in the failed Mott Street store, but left six months pri­or to its fail­ure to set up his busi­ness in Hoboken with Giuseppe Lo Presti.47

❖ Manzella Bros. 189/196 Elizabeth St. and 1096 3rd Av. Brooklyn

After Manzella’s gro­cery busi­ness was judged bank­rupt with lia­bil­i­ties reach­ing $32,000, one of his cred­i­tors was shown to be Philip Saitta’s son. He is also shown in records with the Mafia owned con­struc­tion com­pa­ny, The Ignatz Florio Co-Operative Association Amongst Corleonese, where he is named in mort­gage trans­fers and sub­or­di­na­tions.48 Philip S. Saitta lat­er act­ed as Manzella’s attor­ney.49

❖ Sebastiano Cataldo. 165 Elizabeth St. NY

Cataldo, a whole­sale liquor deal­er, dis­ap­peared at the same time as Lupo, his lia­bil­i­ties were ‘stat­ed to aggre­gate many thou­sands of dol­lars’.50 He was a direc­tor of the J. Rumore Realty Company. John Rumore, an under­tak­er based at 2089 2nd Av, had direct deal­ings with the Ignatz Florio Co-Operative.51

❖ Frank Zito. 24 Stone St. NY

Frank Zito’s import com­pa­ny shipped in pro­duce from Francesco Gambino, Lupo’s broth­er-in-law based in Palermo. Zito had cor­re­spon­dence with Lupo after his impris­on­ment in 1910 hav­ing appeared as a char­ac­ter wit­ness on his behalf, and was list­ed as a sig­na­to­ry request­ing Lupo’s full par­don from parole in 1921. Zito was also shown as a sig­na­to­ry dur­ing Phillip S. Saitta’s pre­sen­ta­tion to con­gress in 1908. The’ New York Fruit Exchange Incorporated’, which was described as the ‘largest and most influ­en­tial body of its kind’, list­ed Zito as a trustee of the com­pa­ny.52

❖ John Bono & Co. 252 Avenue A. NY

Bono, a whole­sale wine deal­er, was the first arrest made in the scheme. A book­keep­er from his store ‘squealed’, and con­fessed the scheme to the receivers. Bono had fled his store, but was lat­er arrest­ed on Broadway and charged with grand lar­ce­ny.53 Among Bono’s cred­i­tors were the Lake Erie Wine Company, the same cred­i­tor as Cataldo and Passananti.54

❖ A. Viviano & Sons. 238 Elizabeth St. NY

Antonio Viviano offered him­self as sure­ty when Lupo was arrest­ed on coun­ter­feit­ing charges in 1903. He was also given as a busi­ness ref­er­ence by Domenico Milone who front­ed a gro­cery busi­ness dis­trib­ut­ing coun­ter­feit mon­ey for Lupo and Morello. His son, Luigi Viviano, had cor­re­spon­dence with Lupo after his impris­on­ment in 1910, and was list­ed as a sig­na­to­ry in request­ing his full par­don from parole in 1921.55

❖ Antonio Collora. 1024 Wallabout Market. Brooklyn

Collora, a Brooklyn based mer­chant, dis­ap­peared after clear­ing the assets from his busi­ness. Suspected of being part of the scheme, he was adjudged bank­rupt.56 Collora’s wag­ons were seen out­side Domenico Milone’s store in 1909, the dri­ver was seen to be argu­ing with Antonio Cecala, both known asso­ciates of Lupo. Giuseppe Morello was seen vis­it­ing Collora’s busi­ness in October 1909. 57

❖ Abele Corillo. 990 Atlantic Avenue. Brooklyn

Corillo was anoth­er wine mer­chant who dis­ap­peared with the oth­ers in the scheme. He lat­er had a peti­tion in invol­un­tary bank­rupt­cy filed again­st his busi­ness.58

❖ Rando Bros. 24 Stone St. NY

Saitta’s ‘Arch Realty Construction Company’ list­ed Frank and Giuseppe F. Randow as direc­tors.59

The Money

The accu­sa­tion put to Saitta was that he had induced the Anglo-South American Bank to loan $300,000 again­st bills of lad­ing from the gro­cers involved.

The New York Times stat­ed that in the weeks before Lupo’s dis­ap­pear­ance he had ‘pur­chased about $50,000 worth of mer­chan­dise … most of it he put in ware­hous­es after­ward, either sell­ing the bills of lad­ing or obtain­ing loans on the foods.‘60 and that he had secured his mon­ey using bills of lad­ing for the ‘enor­mous amount of stock that [he] gen­er­al­ly car­ried in his estab­lish­ments at Mott and Spring Streets.”61

The Evening Telegram con­tend­ed that Lupo had also been using prop­er­ty to raise mon­ey:62

The police say [Lupo] fur­nished the secu­ri­ty upon which the gro­ceries were stocked. The scheme was start­ed by secur­ing a house val­ued at more than $75,000 on which Lupo paid $3,000 and gave a mort­gage. By refer­ring this house as secu­ri­ty the back­ers of the gro­cery chain got cred­it in lots of $2,000 until they had $100,000 worth. 

Property records show that the The Ignatz Florio Co-Operative con­veyed two six storey ten­e­ments to Lupo in 1907.63 A few days before his dis­ap­pear­ance, Lupo took three mort­gages on the prop­er­ties, one from Antonio Rizzo,64 and anoth­er from Joseph Di Giorgio65, a wealthy fruit importer who had pre­vi­ous­ly been bombed by the Black Hand.66 Philip W. Saitta wit­nessed Lupo col­lect­ing $8,500 from Di Giorgio’s office short­ly before he fled the city.67

Seven months after Lupo’s dis­ap­pear­ance, he was sum­monsed by the Supreme Court of New York in rela­tion to the build­ings. Others named in the sum­mons were Joseph Di Giorgio, Antonio Rizzo, The Ignatz Florio Co-Operative, and Giuseppe Morello.68 The build­ings were even­tu­al­ly put up for pub­lic auc­tion in late 1909.69

In 1910, Lupo was ques­tioned in court about his busi­ness fail­ure, which he attrib­ut­ed to the 1907 Bankers’ Panic’:70

In 1908, on account of bank­ing trou­ble cri­sis, busi­ness went bad … He had friends he could go to to get loans once in a while to pay his notes … Before the finan­cial cri­sis he bought some prop­er­ty where he invest­ed all his mon­ey … He had stuff in bond and he had bills for those goods and had bor­rowed mon­ey on them.

The pros­e­cu­tions main wit­ness from Lupo’s tri­al said that he had over­heard con­ver­sa­tion frag­ments dur­ing the time he had spent with the Mafia gang:71

There was some talk of the fail­ure of Lupo in his bank on Elizabeth Street, and how [Giuseppe Palermo] and Uncle Vincent had also failed on Elizabeth Street, mak­ing much mon­ey there­by

The bank­rupt gro­cer, Salvatore Manzella, claimed his busi­ness had been ruined by an extor­tion scheme run by Lupo. He tes­ti­fied that for over three years he, and oth­ers, had been a vic­tim of extor­tion from Lupo. Manzella also claimed that Lupo, one week before he dis­ap­peared, had vis­it­ed his store and tak­en over $1000 in cash at gun­point. But detec­tives claimed that the mon­ey was given to Lupo more than a week after his cred­i­tors and receivers had begun to look for him.72

Philip S. Saitta, who act­ed as Manzella’s attor­ney, lat­er retract­ed the­se state­ments.73 Manzella then failed to appear as a wit­ness for the pros­e­cu­tion again­st Lupo, and the extor­tion charges were dropped.74

The con­spir­a­cy had a dev­as­tat­ing effect on inno­cent busi­ness­es. Jacob Kulla, a whole­sale deal­er who’s sales exceed­ed two mil­lion dol­lars a year, was adjudged bank­rupt in January 1909. His insol­ven­cy was, in part, attrib­ut­ed to ‘the recent fail­ures of Lupo and oth­er Sicilians in the gro­cery and wine trade’.75

When Lupo returned to New York, in late 1909, to face his cred­i­tors, he dubi­ous­ly explained that his busi­ness had been ruined by threats from the Black Hand, who had forced him to pay $10,000 before he fled the city. His tale caused some under­stand­able dis­be­lief as Lupo him­self had been ‘cred­it­ed by the police with being trea­sur­er and head of the Black Hand’.76

The Others

According to the writ­ings of William J Flynn, oth­er Mafia organ­i­sa­tions failed at around the same time as the gro­cers:77

❖ The Roma Construction Company

Run by Antonio Passananti and Carlo Costantino. The pair had been con­nect­ed to the gro­cery con­spir­a­cy,78 and were sus­pect­ed of being employed by Lupo to ‘run two of his branch stores’.79 They fled to Sicily in ear­ly 1909, and were lat­er arrest­ed in con­nec­tion with the mur­der of NYPD Lt. Petrosino.80

Baldassarre Ceola, the police com­mis­sion­er of Palermo, wrote a report on the Petrosino case in April 1909:81

Carlo Costantino and Antonio Passananti returned unex­pect­ed­ly from America, pass­ing off their sud­den jour­ney with the excuse that they sought there­by to escape pay­ments of some pet­ty debts. Actually, both bought large sums of mon­ey to Italy…

❖ The Co-Operative Society of Sicily

The pur­pose of the soci­ety was described as:82

The pro­mo­tion and encour­age­ment of mutu­al­i­ty and reci­procity in indus­tries and com­merce, through the estab­lish­ment of Co-oper­a­tive stores and fac­to­ries in the United States of America … trade, deal in, and deal with goods, wares, mer­chan­dise and prop­er­ty

The soci­ety was based in Prince Street, with direc­tors includ­ing Carmelo Naso and Giuseppe Palermo,83 both of whom were with Lupo at the time of his arrest for coun­ter­feit­ing in 1910.84 The soci­ety also had prop­er­ty deal­ings with Carlo Costantino from the Roma Construction Company,85 and the Ignatz Florio Co-Operative.86 Palermo, who was impris­oned along with Lupo in 1910, was described as: 87

an Italian Banker in the upper east side of New York … in 1907 he is sup­posed to have abscond­ed with a large sum of mon­ey which had been placed with him by Italians of the neigh­bour­hood to be trans­mit­ted to Italy.

❖ Pasquale Pati & Son. 238240 Elizabeth St. NY

Flynn wrote ‘Lupo was also on more than famil­iar terms with banker Pati’.88. The banker he was refer­ring to was Pasquale Pati who ran a pri­vate bank on Elizabeth Street, at one time hold­ing deposits totalling $1,500,00. In March 1908, Pati closed the busi­ness and fled, pro­claim­ing threats from the Black Hand.89 He was lat­er want­ed by the police for grand lar­ce­ny in con­nec­tion with his dis­ap­pear­ance.90

The Convictions

No con­vic­tions were made in con­nec­tion with the con­spir­a­cy that was described by ADA Hayward in 1914.

When Manzella failed to appear in court again­st Lupo in November 1909, the extor­tion charges were dropped.91 Lupo was arrest­ed just months lat­er for coun­ter­feit­ing, and was grant­ed an exten­sion of a mon­th in which to file his appli­ca­tion for a dis­charge from bank­rupt­cy.92 However, he was impris­oned on the coun­ter­feit­ing charge for 30 years at Atlanta Penitentiary.93

After Philip S. Saitta’s 1914 tri­al he was sen­tenced to two-four years at Sing Sing. He sold his Brooklyn house, described as ‘one of the finest in the Bay Ridge sec­tion’, which was lat­er destroyed in a ‘sus­pi­cious’ fire. He then passed away in late 1917.94

Credits

Written by Jon Black, with thanks to David Critchley for his con­tri­bu­tions to the research.

Footnotes
  1. Lupo’s his­to­ry: Trial tran­scripts of the US Circuit Court for the District of New York, 17901912. USA vs. Giuseppe Calicchio et al. C2347
    Store name: NARA. RG87. T915-106 Daily Reports of Agents, com­piled 1875 — 1937.
    Explosion at store: New York Times, New York. March 20, 1905 []
  2. New York Times, New York. November 131909.
    New York Times, New York. December 51908
    Turnover: Trial tran­scripts of the US Circuit Court for the District of New York, 17901912. USA vs. Giuseppe Calicchio et al. C2347 []
  3. The Washington Post. May 3rd, 1914. p8 []
  4. Gambino and Zito: Trial tran­scripts of the US Circuit Court for the District of New York, 17901912. USA vs. Giuseppe Calicchio et al. C2347
    Gambino is list­ed in Lupo’s pris­on file cor­re­spon­dence: Atlanta Federal Penitentiary papers, RG 129, NARA-SE. #2883 Ignazio Lupo
    Telegram and ship­ment: NARA. RG87. T915-106 Daily Reports of Agents, com­piled 1875 — 1937.
    []
  5. The New York Times. New York. December 311911
    Mott and Spring Streets: New York Times, New York. December 6, 1908 []
  6. Trial tran­scripts of the US Circuit Court for the District of New York, 17901912. USA vs. Giuseppe Calicchio et al. C2347
    9 Spring Street was list­ed under Ignazio Lupo’s name: Trow’s General Directory of the Boroughs of Manhattan & Bronx City of New York, New York for 1907-08
    Cecala also had a gro­cery busi­ness on Mott Street before it went bank­rupt: ‘Black Hand con­fes­sions 1910’, Box 1, Lawrence Richey Papers, Herbert Hoover Presidential Library — full ver­sion []
  7. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. December 10, 1908. p.2 []
  8. William J. Flynn, The Barrel Mystery. New York, The James A. McCann Company, 1919. p.216 p.247 []
  9. The Evening Telegram. New York. April 6, 1909. p2
    The New York Times. New York. April 7th1909
    Costantino’s store was a known hang­out for Black Hand crim­i­nals, he fled the store after it went bank­rupt: New York Herald. New York. April 7th, 1909 []
  10. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. February 10, 1910. p18 []
  11. Described as “the pro­pri­etor of a large wine deposit, and he has more prop­er­ty.” — Flynn, The Barrel Mystery. p.81
    Debts: Real estate record and builders’ guide. February 1909. V.83 p.378, p.625, p.963 []
  12. The Sun. New York. September 61908
    New York Times, New York. December 61908
    New York Times, New York. March 17, 1909 []
  13. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. December 91908
    The Sun. New York. December 81908
    The Sun. New York. December 131908
    New York Times, New York. December 6, 1908 []
  14. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. December 8, 9, 10. 1908 []
  15. New York Times, New York. December 61908
    Atlanta Federal Penitentiary papers, RG 129, NARA-SE. #2883 Ignazio Lupo
    Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney. NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo (NYPD news clip­ping) []
  16. Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney. NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo (NYPD news clip­ping) []
  17. New York Times, New York. November 141909
    New York Times, New York. December 5, 1908 []
  18. The New York Times. New York. November 141909
    Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney. NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo (NYPD news clip­ping) []
  19. Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney. NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo (NYPD news clip­ping) []
  20. The Sun. New York. December 6, 1908 []
  21. The New York Times. New York. December 21, 1908 []
  22. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Trial Transcripts of the County of New York. Court of General Sessions 18831927. #1857 Philip S. Saitta. 1914÷3÷20 []
  23. Tariff hear­ings before the Committee on ways and means of the House of Representatives V.4 Schedules F-I. 19081909. p.4021
    The New York Times, New York. November 20, 1908 []
  24. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Trial Transcripts of the County of New York. Court of General Sessions 18831927. #1857 Philip S. Saitta. 1914÷3÷20 []
  25. The Sun. New York. March 311914
    New York Tribune, New York. April 141914
    New York Times. New York. March 20, 1913 []
  26. The Sun. New York. March 23, 1913. p.3 []
  27. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. April 131914
    New York Times. New York. March 20, 1913 []
  28. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Trial Transcripts of the County of New York. Court of General Sessions 18831927. #1857 Philip S. Saitta. 1914÷3÷20 []
  29. Yearbook / The Association of the Bar of the City of New York. 1915. p.148 []
  30. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Trial Transcripts of the County of New York. Court of General Sessions 18831927. #1857 Philip S. Saitta. 1914÷3÷20
    Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. April 13, 1914 []
  31. New York Tribune, April 14, 1914 []
  32. Trial tran­scripts of the US Circuit Court for the District of New York, 17901912. USA vs. Giuseppe Calicchio et al. C2347
    Saitta shown at 258 Broadway: Tariff hear­ings before the Committee on ways and means of the House of Representatives V.4 Schedules F-I. 19081909. Page 4021 []
  33. National Archives and Records Administration. RG87 T915-106 Daily Reports of Agents, com­piled 18751937. William Flynn. 18 March, 1914 []
  34. The Evening Telegram. New York. March 23, 1909 []
  35. The Sun. November 14, 1909. p.10
    The New York Times. New York. November 141909
    Father and son: New York Passenger Arrival Lists (Ellis Island), 18921924. Saitta fam­i­ly, 01 Oct, 1903
    Father and son: Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. March 291913
    Father and son: The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Trial Transcripts of the County of New York. Court of General Sessions 18831927. #1857 Philip S. Saitta. 1914÷3÷20
    []
  36. Daily Herald. April 141914
    The Buffalo Express, April 11, 1914 []
  37. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Trial Transcripts of the County of New York. Court of General Sessions 18831927. #1857 Philip S. Saitta. 1914÷3÷20 []
  38. Real estate record and builders’ guide. 1913. V.92 p.320
    Morello vis­it­ed Zito’s office in 1909. He import­ed pro­duce from Lupo’s broth­er-in-law in Palermo: Trial tran­scripts of the US Circuit Court for the District of New York, 17901912. USA vs. Giuseppe Calicchio et al. C2347
    Zito was a sig­na­to­ry request­ing Lupo’s full par­don in 1921: Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney. NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo
    After he was impris­oned in 1910 Lupo had cor­re­spon­dence with Frank Zito: Atlanta Federal Penitentiary papers, RG 129, NARA-SE. #2883 Ignazio Lupo []
  39. Saitta & Calandra: New York Times. New York. September 8, 1915. p.14
    Calandra mur­der: New York Daily Tribune. New York. July 21, 1906. p.3
    Calandra Fire: Pearson’s Magazine. V.29 (Jan-June 1913) p.298
    Calandra acquit­tal: New York Times. New York. April 141908
    Cases again­st Calandra: The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Trial Transcripts of the County of New York. Court of General Sessions 18831927. #601 #946
    Calandra and the Ignatz Florio Co-Operative: Real estate record and builders’ guide. V.80 p.644
    Lupo had cor­re­spon­dence with Calandra whilst in pris­on: Atlanta Federal Penitentiary papers, RG 129, NARA-SE. #2883 Ignazio Lupo []
  40. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. April 41914.
    The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Trial Transcripts of the County of New York. Court of General Sessions 18831927. #1857 Philip S. Saitta. 1914÷3÷20.
    Records show that Philip S. Saitta had con­veyed a prop­er­ty via his son, Philip W. Saitta to a Chas A. Edwards in November 1907: Real estate record and builders’ guide. 1907. V.80 p.861 []
  41. Other busi­ness­es list­ed were:
    Anastasi Brothers — 167 West 4th Street, New York
    Pietro Peiri & Bro — 233 West Street, New York
    Salvatore Como & Paolo Di Dato — 24 Mott Street, New York
    C.E. Thurston Company — 97 Warren St, New York
    A.A. Purpura — 1030 Wallabout Market, Brooklyn
    also M. Aiello, Selafane Brothers, S. Caballo, and L. Bonnano. 

    Charles Thurston a pow­er­ful busi­ness­man, spoke at the The Annual Eastern meet­ings of the New York State Fruit Growers Association, and was a direc­tor of the Aetna Bank alongside the famous Simone Saitta — “lemon King of America”.
    State Fruit Growers Association: Poughkeepsie Daily Eagle. New York. February 23, 241911.
    Directory of direc­tors in the city of New York. 19091910. p.719 []

  42. The Sun. New York. December 131908
    The amount Lupo owed to his cred­i­tors varies between sources. The most com­mon amount was $100,000 []
  43. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. December 9, 1908 []
  44. The Sun. New York. November 14, 1909. p10
    The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Trial Transcripts of the County of New York. Court of General Sessions 18831927. #1857
    Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. December 9, 1908. p2 []
  45. Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney. NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo (NYPD news clip­ping) []
  46. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. December 81908.
    Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. December 10. 1908. p2
    Grocery net­work: The New York Times. New York. December 311911
    Petrosino mur­der: The Origin of Organized Crime in America. David Critchley. Routledge 2009. p.68 []
  47. Trial tran­scripts of the US Circuit Court for the District of New York, 17901912. USA vs. Giuseppe Calicchio et al. C2347
    Giuseppe Lo Presti was list­ed as a friend in Lupo’s pris­on file: Atlanta Federal Penitentiary papers, RG 129, NARA-SE. #2883 Ignazio Lupo []
  48. The Evening Telegram. New York. March 231909
    Real estate record and builders’ guide. V.80 p.505 p.644
    Ignatz Florio Co-Operative back­ground: The Origin of Organized Crime in America. David Critchley. Routledge 2009. p.45
    []
  49. The Evening Telegram. New York. March 231909
    Saitta & Thiele: Directory of direc­tors in the city of New York. 19091910. p.546 []
  50. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. December 6, 1908 p.5 []
  51. Directory of direc­tors in the city of New York. 19091910. p.104
    Trow copart­ner­ship and cor­po­ra­tion direc­to­ry of the bor­oughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. p.679
    Rumore as under­tak­er: Department of Health Report. p.209
    Real estate record and builders’ guide. 1908. V.82. p.120
    Real estate record and builders’ guide. V.80. p.497
    Real estate record and builders’ guide. V.81. p.640 []
  52. Mafioso Giuseppe Morello vis­it­ed Frank Zito’s office in 1909: Trial tran­scripts of the US Circuit Court for the District of New York, 17901912. USA vs. Giuseppe Calicchio et al. C2347
    Gambino and Zito: Trial tran­scripts of the US Circuit Court for the District of New York, 17901912. USA vs. Giuseppe Calicchio et al. C2347
    Gambino: NARA. RG87. T915-106 Daily Reports of Agents, com­piled 1875 — 1937
    Pardon from parole: Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney. NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo
    Correspondence: Atlanta Federal Penitentiary papers, RG 129, NARA-SE. #2883 Ignazio Lupo
    Signatory for Saitta: Tariff hear­ings before the Committee on ways and means. p.4035
    Fruit Exchange Inc. : Directory of direc­tors in the city of New York. 19091910. p.860
    ‘Influential body’ : Tariff hear­ings before the Committee on ways and means of the House of Representatives. 19081909. Vol.IV. p.3979 []
  53. The Sun. New York. December 131908
    Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney. NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo (NYPD news clip­ping) []
  54. Evening Post, New York December 4th1908
    New York Daily Tribune. New York. December 5, 1908 []
  55. Antonio sure­ty: U.S Circuit Court for the Southern District of New York. Criminal Case Files. C2870. U.S vs Lupo & Inzerillo
    Domenico Milone: National Archives and Records Administration. RG87 T915-106 Daily Reports of Agents, com­piled 18751937. William Flynn. October, 1909
    Correspondence: Atlanta Federal Penitentiary papers, RG 129, NARA-SE. #2883 Ignazio Lupo
    Signatory: Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney. NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo
    Antonio and Luigi as father and son: The Trow (for­mer­ly Wilson’s) copart­ner­ship and cor­po­ra­tion direc­to­ry of New York City. 1906. p.753 []
  56. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. December 9, 1908. p.2
    NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo (NYPD news clip­ping) []
  57. National Archives and Records Administration. RG87 T915-106 Daily Reports of Agents, com­piled 18751937. William Flynn. October, 1909 []
  58. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. December 9, 1908. p.2
    NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo (NYPD news clip­ping) []
  59. Trow copart­ner­ship and cor­po­ra­tion direc­to­ry of the bor­oughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. p.38
    Trow copart­ner­ship and cor­po­ra­tion direc­to­ry of the bor­oughs of Manhattan and the Bronx p.40 []
  60. New York Times, New York. December 5, 1908 []
  61. New York Times, New York. December 6, 1908 []
  62. The Evening Telegram. New York. January 11, 1910 []
  63. Real estate record and builders’ guide. September 28, 1907. V.80 p.499 []
  64. Real estate record and builders’ guide. December 5, 1908. V.82 p.1097
    Rizzo is list­ed for exam­i­na­tion, and shown as a rent col­lec­tor, in Lupo’s bank­rupt­cy file: U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. Bankruptcy Cases. #11703
    Rizzo is list­ed as the man­ager of a saloon at 8 Prince Street, a saloon once owned by Lupo: New York Evening Telegram. New York. May 71903
    Rizzo was also a sus­pect­ed Black Hander, with con­nec­tions to the 1903 ‘Barrel Murder’: The Evening Telegram. New York. March 26, 1909 p.4. The Sun. New York. April 12, 1909. p.2
    He was also named as a sig­na­to­ry on one of Giuseppe Morello’s let­ters: Flynn, The Barrel Mystery. p.211 []
  65. Real estate record and builders’ guide. December 5, 1908. V.82 p.1103
    The New York Times. New York. January 22, 1909. Business Troubles
    Three mort­gages: Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney. NARA Record Group 204. 230÷40÷1÷3 Box 956. Ignazio Lupo (NYPD news clip­ping) []
  66. Business back­ground: Proceedings of the Committee on the mer­chant marine and fish­eries in the inves­ti­ga­tion of ship­ping com­bi­na­tions under House res­o­lu­tion 587. p.783
    Business his­to­ry: Men of mark in Maryland. Biographies of lead­ing men of the state. p.152
    Business address: Blue book of American ship­ping. Marine and naval direc­to­ry of the United States. p.418
    Black Hand bomb­ing: The Origin of Organized Crime in America. David Critchley. Routledge 2009. p.30
    Black Hand bomb­ing back­ground: http://www2.citypaper.com/news/story.asp?id=12137
    Di Giorgio is list­ed in Lupo’s bank­rupt­cy file: U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. Bankruptcy Cases. #11703 []
  67. The Sun. November 14, 1909. p,10 []
  68. New York Daily Tribune. New York. July 6, 1909. p.11 []
  69. The New York Times. New York. October 4, 1909. p.15 []
  70. Trial tran­scripts of the US Circuit Court for the District of New York, 17901912. USA vs. Giuseppe Calicchio et al. C2347 []
  71. Black Hand con­fes­sions 1910’, Box 1, Lawrence Richey Papers, Herbert Hoover Presidential Library — full ver­sion []
  72. The Sun. New York. March 171909
    The New York Times, New York. March 171909
    The New York Times, New York. November 181909
    The Sun. New York. November 18, 1909. p12 []
  73. The Evening Telegram. New York. March 231909
    Saitta & Thiele: Directory of direc­tors in the city of New York. 19091910. p.546 []
  74. New York Times, New York. November 23, 1909 []
  75. The Sun. New York. January 5, 1909. p.11 []
  76. New York Times, New York. November 131909
    The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. February 171910
    []
  77. The Washington Post. July 12, 1914 []
  78. The Evening Telegram. New York. January 11, 1910 []
  79. The New York Times. New York. December 31, 1911 []
  80. The Origin of Organized Crime in America. David Critchley. Routledge 2009. p.68 []
  81. Joe Petrosino. Arrigo Petacco. Macmillan New York 1974 p.171 []
  82. Certificate of Incorporation. #792/1906C []
  83. Directory of direc­tors in the city of New York. 19091910. p.454
    The Trow (for­mer­ly Wilson’s) copart­ner­ship and cor­po­ra­tion direc­to­ry of New York City. 1908. p.182
    Certificate of Incorporation. #792/1906C
    Giuseppe Palermo was also known as Salvatore Sacacina as not­ed on his Atlanta Penitentiary admis­sion sheet in 1910 []
  84. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. February 8, 1910 []
  85. Real estate record and builders’ guide. 1908. V.82 p.444 []
  86. Real estate record and builders’ guide. July 25, 1908. V.82 p.216 []
  87. Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney. NARA Record Group 204. Giuseppe Palermo []
  88. Flynn, The Barrel Mystery. p.231 []
  89. New York Times. New York. March 25, 1908. p.1
    The Titusville Morning Herald. Pennsylvania. March 25, 1908. p.1
    New York Daily Tribune. March 25, 1908. p.2
    The World. New York. March 24, 1908. p.1 Evening edi­tion
    The Post-Standard. Syracuse. March 25, 1908. p.1 []
  90. ‘Trying to Fool the Police’: Pearson’s Magazine (Jan.-June 1913) V.29 p.612 []
  91. New York Times, New York. November 23, 1909 []
  92. New York Times, New York. February 17, 1910 []
  93. New York Times, New York. February 201910
    Records show that, in 1912, Lupo’s broth­er-in-laws were ‘were still extort­ing mon­ey from poor shop­keep­ers and oth­ers’: NARA. RG87. T915-106 Daily Reports of Agents, com­piled 1875 — 1937
    []
  94. House fire: Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. March 22, 1916. p.2
    Sold house: Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. March 23, 1916. p.8
    Death: Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. December 24, 1917. p.22 []